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Restrictive Lung Disease – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatments

Restrictive lung disease belongs to extrapulmonary, parenchymal or pleural respiratory disease that restricts lung expansion. Thus results in decrease in lung volume, increase in the functioning of breathing and also inadequate ventilation or oxygenation. Pulmonary function test illustrates decrease in forced vital capacity.

SYMPTOMS OF RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE:

There are various symptoms of restrictive lung disease that acts as warnings. The symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath after exercise
  • Difficulty in inhaling and exhaling
  • Wheezing and noisy breathing
  • Cough
  • Coughing up blood

CAUSES OF RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE:

Restrictive lung disease causes include:

  • Radiation fibrosis
  • Asbestosis
  • Certain drugs, like bleomycin, methotrexate and amiodarone
  • Infant respiratory distress syndrome. This is caused by surfactant deficiency in the infant lungs.
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Pulmonary Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis
  • Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia
  • Eosinophilic pneumonia
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
  • Neuromuscular diseases
  • Nonmuscular diseases of chest wall

DIAGNOSIS FOR RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE:

In this condition, both FVC and FEV1 are decreased such that FEV1/FVC ratio is normal. This ratio may increase in contrast to obstructive lung disease. In this the ratio is decreased. Generally, total lung capacity and residual volume values are lowered in restrictive lung disorder.

TREATMENT FOR RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE:

Exact treatments and therapies are not yet developed. The methods implemented for treating restrictive lung disease are not that effective. This is because, the origin of the disease is not known and there is a possibility for misdiagnosis. However, treatment include providing supplemental oxygen. Colchicine is used for treating the disease, but it was not effective.

Other treatments include:

  • Steam inhalation
  • Expectorants such as Potassium iodide, acetycysteine
  • Corticosteroids
  • Decongestants
  • Bronchodilators
  • Antihistamines
  • Anti-tussive therapy
  • Medications include:
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Benzonatate

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